Present Perfect Review
Generally, the Present Perfect expresses the idea that an action happened at an unspecified time. Because the concept of "unspecified time" can be confusing, it's a great idea to learn the most common uses of PP.
1. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present.
- I have lived in the United States for 2 years.
- She has been married since 1989.
- Jake has been unemployed for 12 months.
- I live in Paris. I have lived in Berlin too.
2. When the time period referred to has not finished.
- Podolski has scored 2 goals so far.
- The match still goes on.
- I haven't used my car today.
3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now.
- I have been to Europe a couple of times.
- Jane says she has seen that woman many times.
4. An action that was completed very recently.
- She has just been fired.
- My father and I have just left our house.
- I have just received tons of spam.
5. An action when the result is very important but the time is not.
- The Browns have invited us for dinner.
- Who has drunk my coke?!
- Have you been notified about your award?
To correctly form the Present Perfect, master these topics:
1. Conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have "
- I have
- I has
- He/she/it has
- He/she/it have
2. Negative Statements : "not" is added between the auxilary "to have" and the main verb.
- I haven't (have + not) seen her today.
- Mary hasn't (has + not) left her apartments yet.
3. Questions - the word order for questions is reversed. The verb "to have " comes before the subject.
- Have you seen her today?
- Has Jake told you?
- Jake has told you?
- You have seen her today?
- unless spoken incredulously
4. Past participle formation. For regular verbs Past participle can be formed by adding -ed to base form the verb of the main verb. Irregular verbs must be learned.
- talk + ed = talked
- explain + ed = explained
- include + ed = included
- include + ed = includeed