Present Perfect Review

Generally, the Present Perfect expresses the idea that an action happened at an unspecified time. Because the concept of "unspecified time" can be confusing, it's a great idea to learn the most common uses of PP.


1. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present.

  • I have lived in the United States for 2 years.
  • She has been married since 1989.
  • Jake has been unemployed for 12 months.
  • I live in Paris. I have lived in Berlin too.

2. When the time period referred to has not finished.

  • Podolski has scored 2 goals so far.
  • The match still goes on.
  • I haven't used my car today.

3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now.

  • I have been to Europe a couple of times.
  • Jane says she has seen that woman many times.

4. An action that was completed very recently.

  • She has just been fired.
  • My father and I have just left our house.
  • I have just received tons of spam.

5. An action when the result is very important but the time is not.

  • The Browns have invited us for dinner.
  • Who has drunk my coke?!
  • Have you been notified about your award?



To correctly form the Present Perfect, master these topics:

1. Conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have "

  • I have
  • I has
  • He/she/it has
  • He/she/it have


2. Negative Statements : "not" is added between the auxilary "to have" and the main verb.

  • I haven't (have + not) seen her today.
  • Mary hasn't (has + not) left her apartments yet.

3. Questions - the word order for questions is reversed. The verb "to have " comes before the subject.

  • Have you seen her today?
  • Has Jake told you?
  • Jake has told you?
  • You have seen her today?
  • unless spoken incredulously


4. Past participle formation. For regular verbs Past participle can be formed by adding -ed to base form the verb of the main verb. Irregular verbs must be learned.

  • talk + ed = talked
  • explain + ed = explained
  • include + ed = included
  • include + ed = includeed