Besides, however, nevertheless, otherwise, so, therefore, still, yet, though - Explained

These adverbs and conjuctions are often refered to as "conjucts". They  can join clauses or sentences, but also can, with the exception of  therefore  and nevertheless (which are conjuctions), be used in other ways and sometimes as other parts of speech. Their position will vary according to how they are used.

Let's have a look at each of them:

besides (preposition) means "in addition to". It precedes a noun/pronoun/gerund:

  • Besides working in a bookshop she looks after the garden.

besides (conjunction) means "in addition". It usually precedes its clause, but can follow it:

  • I can't go to the cinema; I'm busy . Besides, I don't have  any money.

Note that moreover could replace besides here in more formal English.

Also, anyway or in any case could be used here in more informal English:

Anyway, I don't have any money .

otherwise can either be an adverb of manner or a conjuction.

otherwise as an adverb of manner usually comes after the verb:

  • I must be eaten slowly. Eaten otherwise (= in a different way) it is not as good as eaten slowly.

otherwise as a conjunction  means "if not/or else":

  • He must  be ill; otherwise he would go to the party.

or could also be used here in more colloquial English:

  • He must be ill or (else) we would go to the party.

So can either be an adverb of degree or a conjuction.

As an adverb of degree, so precedes its adjective/adverb:

  • The dog was so cute that . . .
  • It was so cold outside that. . .

As a conjunction, so precedes its clause:

Our situation was difficult, so we asked for help.

However can be an adverb of degree and conjuction.

As an adverb of degree, however precedes its adjective/adverb and looks like this:

  • You couldn 't earn much, however hard you worked.

As a conjunction, however usually  means "but". It can precede or follow its clause or come after the first word or phrase.

  • I'll offer it to Tom. However, he may not want it or He may not want it, however or Tom, however, may not want it or however, he doesn't want it. . .

But when two contrasting statements are mentioned, however can mean "but/nevertheless/all the same"
They hadn't trained hard, but/however/nevertheless/all the same they won or they won, however/nevertheless/all the same.


Therefore is a conjunction and it can be used instead of so in formal English. It can come at the beginning of the clause or after the first word or phrase; or before the main verb:

  • There are many people who want to buy this paiting; you should, therefore, expect the price to be rather high.

As you know, yet and still  can be adverbs of time.

  • Mike is still at work.  He hasn't repaired the sink yet.

However, as conjunctions,  yet and still appear at the beginning of clauses and have different meanings:

still means something similar to "nevertheless, admitting that".

While yet  means "inspite of that/all the same/nevertheless"

  • Mike is not hard-working; still, he has  managed to become a millinaire.
  • The films is boring; yet people go to cinema to watch it.

Though/although introduce clauses of concession.

  • Though/Although they're very rich, they still want more money.

Another use of though (but not although!) is linking two main clauses.

though used in this way means  "yet" or  "but" and is placed at the beginning but more often at the end of its clause: 

  • She says she will reward me for my efforts, though I don't think she will or She says she'll reward me for my efforts; I don't think she will, though.